Authored and Edited Books

Montola, Markus (2012): On the Edge of the Magic Circle. Understanding Role-Playing and Pervasive Games. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tampere. Tampere University Press. [pdf]

Stenros, Jaakko & Montola, Markus (eds.) (2010): Nordic Larp. Tallinn, Fëa Livia. [pdf]

Montola, M., Stenros, J. & Waern, A. (2009): Pervasive Games: Theory and Design. Morgan Kaufmann. [website]

Montola, Markus & Stenros, Jaakko (eds.) (2008): Playground Worlds. Creating and Evaluating Experiences of Role-Playing Games. Jyväskylä, Ropecon. The book for Solmukohta 2008. [pdf]

Montola, Markus & Stenros, Jaakko (eds.) (2004): Beyond Role and Play. Tools, Toys and Theory for Harnessing the Imagination. Vantaa, Ropecon. The book for Solmukohta 2004. [pdf]

Articles, Papers and Chapters (Reviewed)

Montola, Markus & Holopainen, Jussi (2012): First Person Audience and the Art of Painful Role-Playing. In Torner, Evan. & White, William J. (eds.) (2012): Immersive Gameplay: Essays on Participatory Gameplay and Immersive Media. McFarland.

Montola, Markus (2011): Social Constructionism and Ludology: Implications for the Study of Games. In Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 43, No. 3. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2011): The Painful Art of Extreme Role-playing. In Journal of Gaming and Virtual Worlds, Vol. 3, No. 3. [pdf]

Stenros, J., Waern, A. & Montola, M. (2011): Studying the Elusive Experience in Pervasive Games. In Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 43, No. 3. [pdf]

Stenros, Jaakko & Montola, Markus (2011): The Making of Nordic Larp: Documenting a Tradition of Ephemeral Co-Creative Play. In DiGRA 2011 conference. [pdf]

Stenros, J., Holopainen, J., Waern, A., Montola, M. & Ollila, E. (2011): Narrative Friction in Alternate Reality Games: Design Insights from Conspiracy For Good. In DiGRA 2011 conference. [pdf]

Arrasvuori, J., Boberg, M., Holopainen, J., Korhonen, H., Lucero, A. & Montola, M. (2011): Applying the PLEX Framework in Designing for Playfulness. Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces, June 22-25, 2011, Milan, Italy.

Stenros, Jaakko & Montola, Markus (2011): Parasocial Interaction in Pervasive Role-Play: The Case of Sanningen om Marika. In Henriksen, T. D., Bierlich, C., Hansen, K. F. & Kølle, V. (eds.) (2011): Think Larp. Knudepunkt 2011. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2010): The Positive Negative Experience in Extreme Role-Playing. Nordic DiGRA 2010 conference. August 16-17, 2010, Stockholm, Sweden. [pdf]. German translation by Karsten Dombrowski, “Positive Negativ-Erfahrungen im Extrem-Rollenspiel”, in Dombrowski, Karsten (ed.) (2012): Larp und ich. Mittelpunkt 2012. Reprinted in Saitta, E., Holm-Andersen, M. & Back, J. (eds.) (2014): The Foundation Stone of Nordic Larp 153-167Knutpunkt 2014. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2010): A Ludological View on the Pervasive Mixed-Reality Game Research Paradigm. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing journal. Springer. [pdf]

Korhonen, H., Montola, M. & Arrasvuori, J. (2009): Understanding Playful User Experience Through Digital Games. International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces. Université de Technologie de Compiègne. [pdf]

Montola, M., Nummenmaa, T., Lucero, A., Boberg, M. & Korhonen, H. (2009): Applying a Game Achievement System to Enchance User Experience in a Photo Sharing Service. MindTrek 2009. [pdf]

Waern, A., Montola, M. & Stenros, J. (2009): The Three-Sixty Illusion: Designing for Immersion in Pervasive Games. CHI 2009, Boston. [ACM]

Montola, Markus (2008): The Invisible Rules of Role-Playing: A Structural Framework of Role-Playing Process. In International Journal of Role-Playing 22-36. Vol. 1, No. 1. [pdf]

Stenros, J., Montola, M., Mäyrä, F. (2007): Pervasive Games in Ludic Society. In FuturePlay: Research. Play. Share. Future Play 2007 conference proceedings CD-ROM. Toronto, Algoma University College & University of Ontario Institute of Technology. [ACM]

Montola, Markus (2007): Tangible Pleasures of Pervasive Role-Playing. In Baba, Akira (ed.) (2007): Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Situated Play Conference 178-185. September 24.-28. The University of Tokyo. [pdf]

Stenros, J., Montola, M., Waern, A. & Jonsson, S. (2007): Play it for Real: Sustained Seamless Life/Game Merger in Momentum. In Baba, Akira (ed.) (2007): Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Situated Play Conference 121-129. September 24.-28. The University of Tokyo. [pdf]

Jonsson, S., Waern, A., Montola, M. & Stenros, J. (2007): Game Mastering a Pervasive Larp. Experiences from Momentum. In Magerkurth, Carsten & al. (2007): Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Pervasive Gaming Applications 31-39. PerGames 2007, June 11.-12. Salzburg, Austria.

Montola, Markus & Waern, Annika (2006): Ethical and Practical Look at Unaware Game Participation. In Santorineos, Manthos (ed.) (2006): Gaming Realities. A Challenge for Digital Culture 185-193. Mediaterra 2006 Festival, October 6.-8, Athens. Fournos Centre for the Digital Culture.

Jonsson, S., Montola, M., Waern, A. & Ericsson, M. (2006): Prosopopeia: Experiences from a Pervasive Larp. Proceedings DVD of ACM SIGCHI ACE 2006 conference, June 14.-16. West Hollywood, ACM. [ACM]

Montola, Markus (2005): Designing Goals for Online Role-Players. In de Castell, Suzanne & Jenson, Jennifer (eds.) (2005): Changing Views: Worlds in Play. Proceedings DVD of DiGRA 2005 conference, June 16.-20. Vancouver, Simon Fraser University. [pdf]

Articles, Papers and Chapters (Other)

Stenros, Jaakko & Montola, Markus (2019):  Basic Concepts in Larp Design. In Koljonen, J., Stenros, J., Grove, A. S., Skjønsfell, A. D. & Nielsen, E. (eds.) (2019): Larp Design: Creating Role-Play Experiences. Knudepunkt 2019.

Fatland, Eirik & Montola, Markus (2015):  The Blockbuster Formula: Brute Force Design in The Monitor Celestra and College of Wizardry. In Nielsen, C. B. & Raasted, C. (eds.) (2015): The Knudepunkt 2015 Companion Book 106-117. Knudepunkt 2015. [pdf]

Montola, M., Stenros, J. & Saitta, E. (2015): The Art of Steering: Bringing the Player and the Character Back Together. In Nielsen, C. B. & Raasted, C. (eds.) (2015): The Knudepunkt 2015 Companion Book. Knudepunkt 2015. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2014): Nordic Larp: Performing for the First Person Audience. Spieltrieb 2014, Kraków.

Montola, Markus (2014): Crowdfunding Celestra. In Back, J. (ed.) (2014): The Cutting Edge of Nordic Larp 135-142Knutpunkt 2014. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2014): Social Reality in Role-Playing Games. In Saitta, E., Holm-Andersen, M. & Back, J. (eds.) (2014): The Foundation Stone of Nordic Larp 103-111Knutpunkt 2014. [pdf]

Montola, Markus & Stenros, Jaakko (2013): Play: The Soul of Knutepunkt. Originally published in Reprinted in In Back, J. (ed.) (2014): The Cutting Edge of Nordic Larp 157-160Knutpunkt 2014. [pdf]

Stenros, Jaakko & Montola, Markus (2011): Conspiracy For Good. In Andresen, L, Nielsen, C. B., Carbonelli, L., Heebøll-Christensen, J. & Oscilowski, M. (eds.) (2011): Do Larp. Knudepunkt 2011. [pdf]

Stenros, Jaakko & Montola, Markus (2010): The Paradox of Nordic Larp Culture. In Stenros & Montola (2010): Nordic Larp 15-29.

Mäyrä, Frans & al. (2010): Monialainen pelitutkimus. In Serola, Sami (ed.): Ote informaatiosta. Johdatus informaatiotutkimukseen ja interaktiiviseen mediaan 306-354. Vantaa, BTJ Kustannus.

Stenros, Jaakko & Montola, Markus (2009): Julkinen tila pelissä: Pervasiivinen pelaaminen ja kaupunkiympäristön rajat. In Ridell, S., Kymäläinen, P. & Nyyssönen, T. (eds.) (2009): Julkisen tilan poetiikkaa ja politiikkaa. Tieteidenvälisiä otteita vallasta kaupunki-, media- ja virtuaalitiloissa 141-172. Tampere University Press.

Montola, M., Stenros, J. & Waern, A. (2009): Philosophies and Strategies of Pervasive Larp Design. In Holter, Matthijs, Fatland, Eirik & Tømte, Even (2009): Larp, the Universe and Everything 197-222. The book for Knutepunkt 2009. [pdf]

Montola, Markus & Stenros, Jaakko (2008): Introduction. In Montola & Stenros (2008): Playground Worlds 5-10.

Montola, Markus (2007): Urban Role-Play: The Next Generation of Role-Playing in Urban Space. In von Borries, F., Walz, S. P. & Böttger, M. (eds.) (2007): Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level 266-269. Berlin, Birkhäuser.

Jonsson, S., Montola, M., Stenros, J. & Boss, E. (2007): Five Weeks of Rebellion. Designing Momentum. In Donnis, J., Gade, M. & Thorup, L. (2007): Lifelike 121-128. Copenhagen, Projektgruppen KP07. The book for Knudepunkt 2007. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2007): Breaking the Invisible Rules. Borderline Role-Playing. In Donnis, J., Gade, M. & Thorup, L. (2007): Lifelike 93-100. Copenhagen, Projektgruppen KP07. The book for Knudepunkt 2007. [pdf]

Stenros, J., Montola, M. & Waern, A. (2007): Post Mortem Interaction. Social Play Modes in Momentum. In Donnis, J., Gade, M. & Thorup, L. (2007): Lifelike 131-145. Copenhagen, Projektgruppen KP07. The book for Knudepunkt 2007. [pdf]

Montola, Markus & Waern, Annika (2006): Participant Roles in Socially Expanded Games. In Strang, T., Cahill, V. & Quigley, A. (eds.) (2006): Pervasive 2006 Workshop Proceedings 165-173. PerGames 2006 workshop of Pervasive 2006 conference, May 7.-10. University College Dublin. [pdf] Portugese translation by Luiz Adolfo de Andrade, “Dinâmicas Participativas nos Jogos Socialmente Expandidos”, in Andrade, L. A. & Falcão, T. (eds.) (2012): Realidade Sintética: Jogos eletrônicos, comunicação e experiência social. Scortecci Editora, São Paulo.

Montola, Markus & Jonsson, Staffan (2006): Prosopopeia. Playing on the Edge of Reality. In Frizon, Thorbiörn & Wrigstad, Tobias (eds.) (2006): Role, Play, Art. Collected Experiences of Role-Playing 85-99. Stockholm, Föreningen Knutpunkt. The Book for Knutpunkt 2006. [pdf] Reprinted in Saitta, E., Holm-Andersen, M. & Back, J. (eds.) (2014): The Foundation Stone of Nordic Larp 263-272Knutpunkt 2014. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2005): Exploring the Edge of the Magic Circle. Defining Pervasive Games. DAC 2005 conference, December 1.-3. IT University of Copenhagen. [pdf]

Loponen, Mika & Montola, Markus (2004): A Semiotic View on Diegesis Construction. In Montola & Stenros (2004): Beyond Role and Play 39-51. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2004): Chaotic Role-Playing. Applying the Chaos Model of Organisations for Role-Playing. In Montola & Stenros (2004): Beyond Role and Play 157-164. [pdf] French translation by Anne-Claire Touchais, “Jeu de rôle et théorie du chaos”, in Places to Go, People to Be. [www]

Montola, Markus (2003): Role-Playing as Interactive Construction of Subjective Diegeses. In Gade, Morten, Thorup, Line & Sander, Mikkel (eds.) (2003): As Larp Grows Up. Theory and Methods in Larp 82-89. Copenhagen, Projektgruppen KP03. The book for Knudepunkt 2003. [pdf] French translation by Gregoire Pinson, “Le jeu de rôle comme construction interactive de diégèses subjectives”, in Places to Go, People to Be. [www]

Public Project Reports

Montola, M., Stenros, J. & Waern, A. (2007): Design Kit: Pervasive Larp. IPerG Deliverable D5.8. [pdf]

Stenros, J., Montola, M., Waern, A. & Jonsson, S. (2007): Momentum Evaluation Report. IPerG Deliverable D11.8 Appendix C. [pdf]

Montola, M., Waern, A., Kuittinen, J. & Stenros, J. (2006): Ethics of Pervasive Gaming. IPerG Deliverable D5.5. [pdf]

Montola, M., Jäppinen, A., Lahti, J., Lankoski, P., Waern, A. & Holopainen, J. (2006): Pervasive Game Design and Evaluation Guidelines for IPerG Phase Two. IPerG Deliverable D5.4. [pdf]

Montola, M., Waern, A. & Nieuwdorp, E. (2006): The Domain of Pervasive Gaming. IPerG Deliverable D5.3B. [pdf]


Arrasvuori, J., Korhonen, H. & Montola, M. (2010): Method and Apparatus for Media Relaying and Mixing in Social Networks. [WIPO]

Arrasvuori, J., Korhonen, H., Montola, M., Eronen, A. & Holm, J. (2009): Method and apparatus for thematically modifying location and related information. [WIPO]

Arrasvuori, J., Eronen, A., Korhonen, H. & Montola, M. (2009): Method and Apparatus for Selectively Receiving Communication. [WIPO]

Arrasvuori, J., Holopainen, J., Korhonen, H., Montola, M. & Nummenmaa, T. (2009): Determination of Event of Interest. [WIPO]

Honors, Grants and Awards

Best Doctoral Dissertation Award (2013) for On the Edge of the Magic Circle. University of Tampere Foundation. [www]

Honorary Mention for Doctoral Dissertation (2013) for On the Edge of the Magic Circle. The Finnish Society for Computer Science. [www]

Doctoral dissertation “Approved with Distinction” (2012), for On the Edge of the Magic Circle. Awarded for the best 10% of dissertations. [pdf]

Diana Jones Award for Excellence in Gaming (2012), for Nordic Larp. [www]

Golden Dragon (2011), together with Jaakko Stenros. Ropecon 2011 lifetime achievement award. [www]

Dissertation Grant from Finnish Cultural Foundation (2008), full time research grant for three years.

Viestintätoimisto Pohjoisranta Award for an outstanding master’s thesis in organizational communication (2004), for Organisaatio ja johtaminen kyberavaruudessa.

Academic Activities

International Journal of Role-Playing, a co-founder and a member of the editorial board.

A program committee member or an occasional reviewer for numerous journals (e.g. Game Studies, Games & Culture, Fibreculture, International Journal of Arts and Technology, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing) and conferences (e.g. ACE, DiGRA, MindTrek, Nordic DiGRA, PerGames).

Steering committee memberships in various Tekes-projects; such as HYBRIDEX, Free2Play and Neuroeconomics of Games.

Judge in entrance examination committee at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture. Miscellaneous thesis examinations for RMIT University, Melbourne, and TAMK, Tampere.

DiGRA RPG SIG, a co-founder.


Montola, Markus (2003): Organisaatio ja johtaminen kyberavaruudessa. Master’s Thesis. University of Helsinki. [pdf]

Montola, Markus (2001): Kuolema Roolipeleissä. In Magus 48. [html]